International Journal of Business and Social Science

ISSN 2219-1933 (Print), 2219-6021 (Online) DOI: 10.30845/ijbss

Indian Muslims, Ottoman Empire and Caliphate during Colonial Period
Salih Pay

Indian Muslim is a term applied for Muslims living in the Indian Subcontinent comprised of the modern day states of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. India witnessed the first Muslim raids during the era of the Rashidun, and permanent dominance of Islam began in the Umayyad period upon the conquest of Sindh. Nevertheless, it was Turkish Muslim states, from Ghaznavids to Mughals, which ensured the spreading of Islam in other regions. In the 15th century, the Portuguese were the first to arrive on Indian coasts, before they were subject to raids by Western colonialist states such as Holland, England and France. By the middle of the 19th century, India entirely fell under the British rule. In those days, under guidance of their scholars and leading personalities, Indian Muslims looked for ways to get rid of the British rule. Besides, they provided both moral and material support so that the Ottoman Empire, as the only independent state within Islamic world, and the Caliphate [Khilafat] survive without surrendering to the British or other colonial dominance. The objective of this study is to analyze how Muslims in the Indian Subcontinent who were totally deprived of independence as a British colony, paid close attention to the Ottomans and the Caliphate.

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