International Journal of Business and Social Science

ISSN 2219-1933 (Print), 2219-6021 (Online) DOI: 10.30845/ijbss


Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings and Infrastructure Implementing Seismic Design and Building Code in Northern Pakistan 2005 Earthquake Affected Area
M. Haseeb, Xinhailu,Aneesa Bibi, Jahan Zeb Khan, Iftikhar Ahmad, Rizwan malik

In Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Previously NWFP) in the morning of October 08, 2005, there was a major earthquake of 7.6 mw magnitude. Approximately 100,000 people dead, 138,000 seriously injured and around 3.5 million people were displaced. Approximately 400,153 houses, 6,298 schools, 796 health facilities, 6,440 km roads and 50 to 70 % services like communication, power, water, sanitation etc were destroyed and damaged. Due to ground shaking (horizontal and vertical components), most damage to buildings and infrastructure occurred. In this paper, we discussed the building construction found and the reasons and causes for large scale destruction to the buildings and infrastructure. We observed that most of the buildings were built without implementing building code and seismic design. Then we discussed the building code of Pakistan (including seismic provisions), particularly for the earthquake affected area, and its implementation. We also discussed the building code and seismic design for construction in Japan and compared it with the practices in Pakistan. We described the seismic design and how to use seismic design in different kind of building structures to make the building structures more resistant to earthquakes. In this paper, we suggested some solutions for the construction of building structures in Pakistan to make the building structures more resistant to earthquake and to lessen the damage.

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